Course overview

Description

The Master of Commerce provides the opportunity to develop breadth across selected areas including accounting, business information and logistics management, employment relations, finance, human resource management, marketing or economics.

Course title
Master of Commerce (coursework)
Award abbreviation
MCom
Course code
41680
Course type
Master's degree by coursework only
Status
Current / 2023
Administered by
UWA Business School
CRICOS code
083272M

Course details

Intake periods
Beginning of year and mid-year
Attendance type
Full- or part-time (Student visa holders should read Education Services for Overseas Students Act 2000 for more information.)
Credit points required
96
A standard full-time load is 24 points per semester.
Standard course duration
1.5 years full-time (or equivalent part-time) comprising 72 points of taught units and 24 points of admission credit, as recognised and granted by the School
Maximum course duration
2 years full-time (or equivalent part-time) comprising up to 96 points of taught study (see Rule 5 for further information)
Time limit
5 years
Delivery mode
Internal
Locations offered
UWA (Perth)
Domestic fee type
Postgraduate fee-paying/FEE-HELP
Available to international students
Yes. For information on international student fees see 'Student Procedures: Fees'. (Enquiries: https://www.uwa.edu.au/askuwa)
Course Coordinator(s)
Professor Vincent Chong
Fees
Visit the fees calculator.

Prospective students should see the Future Students website for details on admission requirements, intake periods, fees, availability to international students, careers information etc.

No study plans found for this course. See study plans for more information.

Specialisations

SP-ACCTG Accounting
SP-BSIMG Business Information and Logistics Management
SP-ECONS Economics
SP-EMPCO Employment Relations
SP-FINCE Finance
SP-HRSMT Human Resource Management
SP-INBUS International Business (Not Available for 2021)
SP-MGMNT Management
SP-MRKTG Marketing

Course structure

Key to availability of units:
S1
Semester 1
S2
Semester 2
N/A
not available in 2023 – may be available in 2024 or 2025
NS
non-standard teaching period

All units have a value of six points unless otherwise stated.

Students who have not completed the Bachelor of Commerce, or equivalent as recognised by the Faculty, may be required to complete relevant conversion units up to the value of 24 points, as advised by the Faculty:

Take all units (12 points):

AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
NS, S2MGMT5511Introduction to Global Business
Prerequisites
BUSN5100 Applied Professional Business Communications.
or WACE/TEE English or equivalent
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1, S2MGMT5526Principles for Responsible Management
Prerequisites
any six units in the Master of Commerce (41680)
or the Master of Ocean Leadership (62540)
Incompatibility
MGMT5506 Ethics and Sustainability Management
Up to 3 hours per week which may include seminars/lectures/workshops/dedicated meeting time with the unit coordinator, self-directed learning and the viewing of pre-recorded lecture videos ahead of a timetabled session each week.

Take units up to the value of 12 points from group 1 or 2 or options up to the value of 12 points chosen from groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I.

Group 1

AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
S1, S2BUSN5100Applied Professional Business Communications
Incompatibility
WACE/TEE English or equivalent
or BUSN4003 Applied Business Communication
or MGMT5610 Applied Professional Business Communications
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1, S2MGMT5504Data Analysis and Decision Making
Incompatibility
MGMT5513 Data Driven Decision Making
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week

Take unit(s) to the value of 6 points:

Group 2

AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
N/ASVLG5003Wicked Problems
Prerequisites
any bachelor's degree.
permission/approval is required to enrol
The unit is a 6 week intensive. Attendance at the service learning location is required every day for the first week. In the remaining weeks, students will work independently in project teams, with classroom time reduced to around 15-20 hours altogether.
NS, S1, S2WILG5001Professional Development Practicum A
Prerequisites
Completion of 24 points of post graduate units and approval from the unit coordinator.
150 hours for pre-placement, placement and post-placement activities

Take units to the value of 0-6 points, as advised by the Faculty.

Note: This unit is only available to students enrolled in double degree programs.

Group 3

AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
S1, S2BUSN5506Business Research Project
Prerequisites
approval by course coordinator
in consultation with a supervisor

Accounting specialisation

Take units to the value of 24 points and units to the value of 24 points chosen from either group B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I OR take units to the value of at least 24 points and units chosen from groups B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I sufficient to bring the total to 48 points.

Group A
AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
S1, S2ACCT5511Intermediate Corporate Financial Accounting
Prerequisites
ACCT5432 Introductory Financial Accounting
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2ACCT5521Advanced Corporate Financial Accounting
Prerequisites
ACCT5511 Intermediate Corporate Financial Accounting
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1, S2ACCT5522Principles of Auditing
Prerequisites
ACCT5432 Introductory Financial Accounting
and ACCT5511 Intermediate Corporate Financial Accounting
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1, S2ACCT5531Financial Accounting: Theory and Practice
Prerequisites
ACCT5432 Introductory Financial Accounting.
and ACCT5511 Intermediate Corporate Financial Accounting
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1, S2ACCT5633Accounting for Planning and Control
Prerequisites
ACCT5432 Introductory Financial Accounting
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1ACCT5637Principles of Taxation
Prerequisites
ACCT5432 Introductory Financial Accounting
for standard teaching period—lectures/seminars: up to 3 hours per week

Business Information and Logistics Management specialisation

Take units to the value of 24 points and units to the value of 24 points chosen from either group A, C, D, E, F, G. H or I OR take units to the value of at least 24 points and units chosen from groups A, C, D, E , F, G. H and I sufficient to bring the total to 48 points.

Group B
AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
S2BUSN5001Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technologies in BusinessNoneStandard Semester: lectures/tutorials/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week Summer School: delivered intensively, up to 18 hours per week
N/AEBUS5504Electronic BusinessNonelectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2INMT5501Enterprise Information SystemsNonelectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2INMT5503Logistics and Supply Chain ManagementNonelectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1INMT5504Business Process ManagementNonelectures/seminars: up to 3 hours per week
S1INMT5518Supply Chain AnalyticsNonelectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2INMT5526Business Intelligence
Prerequisites
INMT5518 Models for Logistics, Operations and Services (ID 3338)
or BUSN5002 Fundamentals of Business Analytics (ID 7181)
or Unit(s) BUSN5101 Programming for Business (ID 7189) or equivalent
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2INMT5620Management of Information Systems for Digital TransformationNonelectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1MGMT5660Applied Project Management
Incompatibility
MGMT5665 Project Management
lectures/seminars: up to 3 hours per week

Economics specialisation

Take units to the value of 24 points and units to the value of 24 points chosen from either group A, B, C, D, E, F, H or I OR take units to the value of at least 24 points and units chosen from groups A, B, C, D, E, F, H or I sufficient to bring the total to 48 points.

Group G
AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
N/AECON4507History of Economic Thought
Prerequisites
Enrolment in
the Bachelor of Commerce (Honours) (BH002)
or completion of 144 points in the Bachelor of Philosophy (Honours) (BH005)
or enrolment in
the Master of Economics (42620)
or Master of Public Policy (42580).
Incompatibility
ECON3310 History of Economic Ideas offered in the Economics major
lectures/tutorials/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1, S2ECON5506The Economics of Financial Markets
Prerequisites
Enrolment in 41680 Master of Commerce
or 42620 Master of Economics
or 42670 Master of Economics
or
ECON5541 Economics for Business: Applications and Policy
or ECON5516 The Economics of Public Policy
or
FINA5533 Finance Essentials
and FINA5632 Investments
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1ECON5514Economic Research and Evaluation Methods
Incompatibility
ECON2271 Introductory Econometrics
seminars: 3 hours per week
N/AECON5515Economic Growth and InstitutionsNoneseminars: 3 hours per week
N/AECON5518Economics of Global Health and Policy
Prerequisites
Enrolment in
CM002 Bachelor of Economics and Master of Economics
or 42580 Master of Public Policy
or 42620 Master of Economics
or 42670 Master of Economics
or 41680 Master of Commerce
or 42230 Graduate Certificate in Economics
seminars: 3 hours per week
S2ECON5519Public Economics
Prerequisites
Enrolment in BH013 Bachelor of Economics (Honours)
or CM002 Bachelor of Economics and Master of Economics
or BH002 Bachelor of Commerce (Honours)
or 42620 Master of Economics
or 42670 Master of Economics
or
Enrolment in
BH005 Bachelor of Philosophy (Honours)
and Successful completion of
144 Points
lectures/tutorials/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2ECON5540Economic Analysis and Policy
Prerequisites
ECON5516 The Economics of Public Policy
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week

Employment Relations specialisation

Take units to the value of 24 points and units to the value of 24 points chosen from either group A, B, D, E, F, G, H or I OR take units to the value of at least 24 points and units chosen from groups A, B, D, E, F, G, H or I sufficient to bring the total to 48 points.

Group C
AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
S1EMPL5412Employment RelationsNonelectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2EMPL5450Advanced Topics in Employment Relations
Prerequisites
EMPL5412 Employment Relations
Seminars: 5 blocks of 6 hours in the first part of the semester plus one block of 6 hours at the end of the semester
S2EMPL5501Strategic Workplace Relations
Prerequisites
EMPL5412 Employment Relations
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1EMPL5511Employment Relations in a Global ContextNonelectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2EMPL5514Negotiation and Dispute ResolutionNonelectures/seminars: 5 sessions (7–8 hours each) over 6 weeks
S2EMPL5555Employee Relations Law
Incompatibility
LAWS5555 Employee Relations Law
up to 3 hours seminar

Finance specialisation

Take all units (12 points):

AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
S1, S2FINA5533Finance Essentials
Incompatibility
FINA5432 Introduction to Finance
AND FINA5635 Corporate Finance
lectures: 3 hours per week (maximum students per class: 45)
S1, S2FINA5632Investments
Prerequisites
ACCT5432 Introductory Financial Accounting or equivalent Graduate Certificate in Finance students: none
Co-requisites
FINA5533 Finance Essentials (or equivalent)
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week

Take units to the value of 12 points and units to the value of 24 points chosen from either group A, B, C, E, F, G, H or I OR take units to the value of at least 12 points and units chosen from groups A, B, C, E, F, G, H or I sufficient to bring the total to 36 points.

Group D
AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
S1FINA5510Digital Finance I
Prerequisites
Successful completion of
FINA5533 Finance Essentials
Successful completion of
FINA5632 Investments
Seminars: up to 3 hours per week for 12 weeks
S2FINA5520Risk Management and Financial Instruments
Prerequisites
FINA5533 Finance Essentials or equivalent
and FINA5632 Investments
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1, S2FINA5521Quantitative Methods in Finance
Prerequisites
FINA5533 Finance Essentials (or equivalent)
and FINA5632 Investments
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1, S2FINA5523Financial Statement Analysis and Business Valuation
Prerequisites
Enrolment in
or Successful completion of
FINA5533 Finance Essentials or equivalent
Co-requisites
Master of Applied Finance Students: FINA5533 Finance Essentials (or equivalent)
Incompatibility
FINA2207 Business Analysis & Valuation
or ACCT3302 Financial Statement Analysis.
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1, S2FINA5524Trading and Markets
Prerequisites
FINA5533 Finance Essentials (or equivalent)
and FINA5632 Investments
3 hours per week for 12 weeks. Sessions include a combination of seminars and workshops.
S1, S2FINA5526Funds Management
Prerequisites
FINA5533 Finance Essentials (or equivalent)
and FINA5632 Investments
up to 3 hours per week which may include lectures/seminars/workshops
S1FINA5527Venture Capital
Prerequisites
FINA5533 Finance Essentials (or equivalent)
and FINA5632 Investments
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1, S2FINA5631International Financial Analysis
Prerequisites
Successful completion of
ACCT5432 Introductory Financial Accounting or equivalent
Co-requisites
FINA5533 Finance Essentials
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week

Human Resource Management specialisation

Take units to the value of 24 points and units to the value of 24 points chosen from either group A, B, C, D, F, G, H or I OR take units to the value of at least 24 points and units chosen from groups A, B, C, D, F, G, H or I sufficient to bring the total to 48 points.

Group E
AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
S1HRMT5501Diversity and Inclusion
Prerequisites
HRMT5504 Introduction to Human Resource Management
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2HRMT5502People Analytics
Prerequisites
Enrolment in
41660 Master of Human Resources and Employment Relations (ID 45)
or Course Enrolment 42270 Graduate Certificate in Business Analytics (ID 1458)
or Course Enrolment 42630 Master of Business Analytics (ID 1478)
or 73550 Master of Business Psychology (ID 1408)
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S1, S2HRMT5504Introduction to Human Resource ManagementNoneseminars: up to 3 hours per week
S1HRMT5518Strategic Human Resource Management
Prerequisites
HRMT5504 Introduction to Human Resource Management
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2HRMT5530Career Development and EmployabilityNonelectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2MGMT5508Organisational Behaviour and LeadershipNoneseminars: 3 hours per week for 12 weeks
S1PSYC5514Assessment and Selection
Prerequisites
Enrolment in
53580 Master of Industrial and Organisational Psychology
or 01880/54580 Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Industrial and Organisational Psychology
or 73550 Master of Business Psychology
or 41650 Master of Commerce (Advanced)
or 42610 Master of Professional Accounting (Advanced)
or 41680 Master of Commerce
or 41660 Master of Human Resources and Employment Relations
lectures/tutorials: 36 hours (12 x 3 hours). Attendance to lectures is compulsory.
S2PSYC5515Organisational Development and Change
Prerequisites
Enrolment in
41680 Master of Commerce
or 41660 Master of Human Resources and Employment Relations
or 43550 Master of Commerce (coursework) and Master of International Commercial Law (coursework)
or 52330 Graduate Diploma in Work Health and Safety
or 62540 Master of Ocean Leadership
or 53580 Master of Industrial and Organisational Psychology
or 01880/54580 Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Industrial and Organisational Psychology
or 73550 Master of Business Psychology
or 73290 Graduate Certificate in Business Psychology
up to 3 hours per week for 12 weeks, mix of lectures & activities

International Business (Not Available for 2021) specialisation

Management specialisation

Take all units (12 points):

AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
S2MGMT5503Management Strategy
Incompatibility
MGMT5700 Strategic Management
seminars: 12 x 3 hours
S2MGMT5508Organisational Behaviour and LeadershipNoneseminars: 3 hours per week for 12 weeks

Take units to the value of 12 points and units to the value of 24 points chosen from either group A, B, C, D, E, F, G or I OR take units to the value of at least 12 points and units chosen from groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G or I sufficient to bring the total to 36 points.

Group H
AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
S2EMPL5501Strategic Workplace Relations
Prerequisites
EMPL5412 Employment Relations
lectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
S2EMPL5514Negotiation and Dispute ResolutionNonelectures/seminars: 5 sessions (7–8 hours each) over 6 weeks
S1, S2HRMT5504Introduction to Human Resource ManagementNoneseminars: up to 3 hours per week
S2INMT5503Logistics and Supply Chain ManagementNonelectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week
NSLAWS4227Foundations of Law and Legal Institutions
Incompatibility
Successful completion of
20820 Juris Doctor
or 21190 Bachelor of Laws
This unit is delivered intensively in 'flipped mode' and is offered twice a year. 10 online modules are to be completed in advance (opening two weeks before) of two face-to-face sessions which will run 23 and 24 February 2023 and 20-21 July 2023. Students must attend the face-to-face sessions.
S1MGMT5660Applied Project Management
Incompatibility
MGMT5665 Project Management
lectures/seminars: up to 3 hours per week
S2MKTG5406Buyer Behaviour and Decision MakingNonelecture/seminar/tutorial: up to 3 hours per week

Marketing specialisation

Take units to the value of 24 points and units to the value of 24 points chosen from either group A, B, C, D, E, G. H or I OR take units to the value of at least 24 points and units chosen from groups A, B, C, D, E, G, H or I sufficient to bring the total to 48 points.

Group F
AvailabilityUnit codeUnitnameUnit requirementsContact hours
S2MKTG5406Buyer Behaviour and Decision MakingNonelecture/seminar/tutorial: up to 3 hours per week
S1MKTG5408Marketing Analysis and Planning
Prerequisites
12 points of level 5 MKTG units
lecture/seminar/tutorial: up to 3 hours per week
S2MKTG5462Global Marketing StrategyNonelecture/seminar/tutorial: up to 3 hours per week
S1MKTG5463Marketing of ServicesNonelecture/seminar: up to 3 hours per week
S1MKTG5465Applied Marketing ResearchNonelecture/seminar/tutorial: up to 3 hours per week
S1MKTG5501Integrated Marketing CommunicationsNonecontact hours: up to 3 hours per week
S2MKTG5502Digital MarketingNoneSemester 2: Up to 3 hours per week.
S1MKTG5504Big Data in MarketingNoneSeminars: 3 hours per week for 12 weeks.
S2MKTG5505Marketing and SocietyNoneUp to 3 hours per week which may include seminars/lectures/workshops/dedicated meeting time with the unit coordinator as well as self-directed learning and pre-recorded 'lecture' videos to be watched ahead of each scheduled weekly session.
S1MKTG5578Business Relationship ManagementNonelectures/seminars/workshops: up to 3 hours per week

See also the rules for the course and the Student Rules.

Rules

Applicability of the Student Rules, policies and procedures

1.(1) The Student Rules apply to students in this course.

(2) The policy, policy statements and guidance documents and student procedures apply, except as otherwise indicated in the rules for this course.

Academic Conduct Essentials and Communication and Research Skills modules

2.(1) Except as stated in (2), a student who enrols in this course for the first time irrespective of whether they have previously been enrolled in another course of the University, must undertake the Academic Conduct Essentials module (the ACE module) and the Communication and Research Skills module (the CARS module).

(2) A student who has previously achieved a result of Ungraded Pass (UP) for the CARS module is not required to repeat the module.

(3) A student must successfully complete the ACE module within the first teaching period of their enrolment. Failure to complete the module within this timeframe will result in the student's unit results from this teaching period being withheld. These results will continue to be withheld until students avail themselves of a subsequent opportunity to achieve a passing grade in the ACE module. In the event that students complete units in subsequent teaching periods without completing the ACE module, these results will similarly be withheld. Students will not be permitted to submit late review or appeal applications regarding results which have been withheld for this reason and which they were unable to access in the normally permitted review period.

English Language competency requirements

3. To be considered eligible for consideration for admission to this course an applicant must satisfy the University's English language competence requirement as set out in the University Policy on Admission: Coursework.

Admission requirements

4.(1) To be considered for admission to this course an applicant must have—

(1) (a) a Bachelor's degree, or an equivalent qualification, as recognised by UWA;

and

(b) the equivalent of a UWA weighted average mark of at least 50 per cent;

or

(c) at least two years professional experience in a relevant occupation; or

(2) (a) completed a Graduate Certificate in Finance, or Graduate Certificate in Human Resources and Employment Relations, or Graduate Certificate in Business Information and Logistics Management, or Graduate Certificate in Commerce, or Graduate Certificate in Marketing, or Graduate Certificate in Economics at UWA.

Admission ranking and selection

5. Where relevant, admission will be awarded to the highest ranked applicants or applicants selected based on the relevant requirements.

Articulations and exit awards

6.(1) The following courses form part of an articulated sequence:

  • 41250 Graduate Certificate in Finance (24 points)
  • 41260 Graduate Certificate in Human Resources and Employment Relations (24 points)
  • 41270 Graduate Certificate in Business Information and Logistics Management (24 points)
  • 41280 Graduate Certificate in Commerce (24 points)
  • 41290 Graduate Certificate in Marketing (24 points)
  • 41680 Master of Commerce (96 points)
  • 42230 Graduate Certificate in Economics (24 points)

(2) A student who withdraws from the Master of Commerce course before completing it, but after fulfilling the requirements of a lesser award in the above sequence, may apply for the relevant award.

Course structure

7.(1) The course consists of units to a total value of 96 points (maximum value) which includes conversion units to a value of 24 points, course core units and specialisation units. The course comprises the following specialisations :

  • SP-ACCTG Accounting
  • SP-BSIMG Business Information and Logistics Management
  • SP-ECONS Economics
  • SP-EMPCO Employment Relations
  • SP-FINCE Finance
  • SP-HRSMT Human Resource Management
  • SP-INBUS International Business (Not Available for 2021)
  • SP-MGMNT Management
  • SP-MRKTG Marketing

(2) Units must be selected in accordance with the course structure, as set out in these rules.

(3) Students who have completed a Bachelor of Commerce or equivalent as recognised by the Faculty are granted credit for conversion units up to a value of 24 points.

Satisfactory progress

8. To make satisfactory progress a student must pass units to a point value greater than half the total value of units in which they remain enrolled after the final date for withdrawal without academic penalty.

9. A student who has not achieved a result of Ungraded Pass (UP) for the Communication and Research Skills module (the CARS module) when their progress status is assessed will not have made satisfactory progress even if they have met the other requirements for satisfactory progress in Rule 8.

Progress status

10.(1) A student who makes satisfactory progress in terms of Rule 8 is assigned the status of 'Good Standing'.

(2) Unless the relevant board determines otherwise because of exceptional circumstances—

(a) a student who does not make satisfactory progress for the first time under Rule 8 is assigned a progress status of 'On Probation';

(b) a student who does not make satisfactory progress for the second time under Rule 8 is assigned a progress status of 'Suspended';

(c) a student who does not make satisfactory progress for the third time under Rule 8 is assigned a progress status of 'Excluded'.

11. A student who does not make satisfactory progress in terms of Rule 9 is assigned the progress status of 'On Probation', unless they have been assigned a progress status of 'Suspended' or 'Excluded' for failure to meet other satisfactory progress requirements in Rule 8.

Award with distinction

12. To be awarded the degree with distinction a student must achieve a course weighted average mark (WAM) of at least 80 per cent which is calculated based on—

(a) all units above Level 3 attempted as part of the course that are awarded a final percentage mark;

(b) all relevant units above Level 3 undertaken in articulating courses of this University that are awarded a final percentage mark;

and

(c) all units above Level 3 completed at this University that are credited to the master's degree course.

Deferrals

13. Applicants awarded admission to the course are entitled to a deferral of up to 12 months, as per the University Policy on: Admissions (Coursework).

Additional rules
Alternative exit award

14. A student who withdraws from the course before completing the course requirements but after completing units to the value of 48 points for the Graduate Diploma in Commerce may apply to the Faculty to be awarded the relevant qualification.