Studying online

There are now 2 possible online modes for units:

Units with modes Online timetabled and Online flexible are available for any student to self-enrol and study online.

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Unit Overview


In this age of unsurpassed scientific enlightenment, it is of concern that so many individuals, regulatory bodies, learned institutions and governments fall prey to the misleading messages of bogus science and corrupted science. The primary goal of this postgraduate/honours unit is to sensitise the research-trained students to this reality and provide them with the knowledge and skills to not only distinguish genuine scientific findings from spurious ones, but also understand why and how the industries and institutions supporting corrupted and bogus science are flourishing. Given that some of the proponents of bogus science rely on arguments inspired from the teachings of the philosophy of science and epistemology, the unit starts with an overview of the highly contentious philosophical problem of demarcation between scientific and non-scientific knowledge by providing a brief analysis of the work of Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend and of more recent thinkers. It then explores how evidence-based knowledge arises in science and the role of peer review in the dissemination of scientific knowledge. After exploring how bogus science fails to meet these requirements, the unit examines how bogus science is promoted and made so appealing, and explore how and why even well educated individuals fall prey to it. Then, the unit addresses the importance of being critical of scientific knowledge as well. It explains the various forms of scientific misconduct, examines the issue of fraud in science, and explores the psychosocial underpinnings of corrupted behaviours. The unit also examines how ideological, political, economic and other interests impose themselves on scientific objectivity and integrity, and identifies the potential problems posed by the commodification of academic research. Finally, the unit describes the strategies often adopted to undermine scientists and society's trust in their work, and explores the ways science is manipulated by interest groups and by those making legal decisions and public policy.

6 points
(see Timetable)
Semester 2UWA (Perth)Face to face
Details for undergraduate courses
  • Honours core unit in Sport Science, Exercise and Health [Bachelor of Science (Honours)]

Students are able to (1) develop a critical attitude toward not only popular beliefs and fads but also scientific knowledge; (2) explain the problem of demarcation between science and bogus science and the ongoing academic debate this problem sustains; (3) explain the many opposing views about the epistemic status of knowledge in general, and scientific knowledge in particular; (4) explain the means whereby evidence-based knowledge is achieved in science, and the role of peer review in the dissemination of scientific knowledge; (5) explain the strategies adopted to make bogus science appealing and popular; (6) explain the cognitive and social determinants underlying people's belief in bogus science, superstitions and prejudices; (7) explain the different forms of scientific misconduct, and how and why some scientists abuse science and engage in corrupted science; (8) explain how and why ideological, political, economic and other interests are imposing themselves on scientific objectivity and integrity, and how they manipulate, bully and corrupt science; (9) explain the strategies adopted by interest groups to conceal and discredit unwelcome scientific discoveries and undermine scientists and society's trust in their work; (10) describe the means generally adopted to promote and protect corrupted science; (11) explain the different ways science is misused to dupe the population, and learn how to identify these abuses; (12) argue effectively (writing and oral) against bogus science; (13) argue effectively (writing and oral) against corrupted science; (14) write professional peer reviews of academic work; and (15) become agents with the capacity, skills and knowledge to detect and combat competently, bogus and corrupted sciences.


Indicative assessments in this unit are as follows: (1) short essay(s) writing with essay evaluation; (2) oral presentation and participation; and (3) examination. Further information is available in the unit outline.

Student may be offered supplementary assessment in this unit if they meet the eligibility criteria.

Unit Coordinator(s)
Professor Paul Fournier and Dr Peter Arthur
Unit rules
enrolment in
or postgraduate course
Advisable prior study
some background knowledge in research methods and design
or at least some experience in research, since this unit uses this knowledge to inform the many flaws associated with bogus and corrupted science
Contact hours
seminars: 3 hours per week for 12 weeks—theory is provided by the unit coordinators and guest speakers
tutorials: 2 hour per week for 12 weeks—students present cases of bogus and corrupted science in classes, discuss further the material covered in the seminars, and are asked to support their learning with examples of their choice, thus guaranteeing a multidisciplinary flavour to this unit. The advanced academic training and research experience required of the postgraduate and honours students attending this unit provide the grounds for scholarly and informed discussions during the tutorials.
  • The availability of units in Semester 1, 2, etc. was correct at the time of publication but may be subject to change.
  • All students are responsible for identifying when they need assistance to improve their academic learning, research, English language and numeracy skills; seeking out the services and resources available to help them; and applying what they learn. Students are encouraged to register for free online support through GETSmart; to help themselves to the extensive range of resources on UWA's STUDYSmarter website; and to participate in WRITESmart and (ma+hs)Smart drop-ins and workshops.
  • Unit readings, including any essential textbooks, are listed in the unit outline for each unit, one week prior the commencement of study. The unit outline will be available via the LMS and the UWA Handbook one week prior the commencement of study. Reading lists and essential textbooks are subject to change each semester. Information on essential textbooks will also be made available on the Essential Textbooks. This website is updated regularly in the lead up to semester so content may change. It is recommended that students purchase essential textbooks for convenience due to the frequency with which they will be required during the unit. A limited number of textbooks will be made available from the Library in print and will also be made available online wherever possible. Essential textbooks can be purchased from the commercial vendors to secure the best deal. The Student Guild can provide assistance on where to purchase books if required. Books can be purchased second hand at the Guild Secondhand bookshop (second floor, Guild Village), which is located on campus.
  • Contact hours provide an indication of the type and extent of in-class activities this unit may contain. The total amount of student work (including contact hours, assessment time, and self-study) will approximate 150 hours per 6 credit points.